The Role for the Vitamin D Receptor

The calciferol receptor (VDR) plays a role in a lot of biological activities. It is mainly expressed in calcaneus tissues, including the parathyroid glands and kidneys. A VDR deficiency causes rickets, osteoporosis, and hair loss.

This kind of protein is additionally involved in cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and calcium supplements homeostasis. Numerous clinical studies have shown that a mutation inside the VDR gene can cause several health problems.

The word of VDR can be governed by hereditary, environmental, and chemical factors. Several genes have been referred to as target genetics for the VDR. Some of these involve calcium-binding aminoacids, calbindin D-9k, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, and a retinoid A receptor.

The VDR is certainly phosphorylated on serine residues with a variety of proteins kinases. In intact cells, the VDR is phosphorylated before calcium mineral uptake and calcium-binding proteins are activated. These phosphorylations happen to be ligand-dependent.

One of the main functions of the VDR is usually its ability to bind the active style of vitamin D, calcitriol. Also, it is associated with the retinoid X radio, which manages the activity of other vitamin D-responsive genes.

The VDR is a member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This kind of pathway is certainly characterized by covalent attachment of Ub molecules to target meats. Subsequently, the meats are degraded through the 26S proteasome.

A lot of myeloid leukemia cell lines have been discovered to express the VDR. Between these, circulating monocytes have higher levels of the protein than tissue macrophages.

The VDR is phosphorylated by casein kinase II in a ligand-dependent manner. This kind of phosphorylation of Ser208 happens to be reported to improve interactions with coactivators.